Structural fire protection is built into the building by using fire-resistant walls and floors, structural steel and joint systems, and fireproofing material. This helps the building’s structural integrity to remain intact when it’s exposed to fire.
Compartmentalization uses of fire-resistant walls, doors, and coatings to limit the spread of fire in a building and allow safe egress.
Opening protection includes fire doors and windows that are installed in an opening of a fire barrier to maintain its fire resistance. Fire and smoke dampers, often used in duct systems, are also considered opening protection and complete the fire barrier where air ducts penetrate fire-rated and/or smoke-resistant assemblies.
Firestopping materials limit fire spread through penetrations in a fire barrier. These materials help seal gaps and membrane penetrations that may exist in walls and ceilings from electrical or plumbing work.
Another type of fire protection system is an active fire protection system which has automatic features to attempt to contain the spread of the fire by dispersing water or other compounds.